These fissures are congenital deformities characterized by the interruption in to continuity of the fabrics of top lip, alveolar top curbing and palate. They can be unilateral or bilateral. The etiology of this not this completely clarified pathology, but several responsible factors can be emphasized. Since they are the genes mutants, who are associated with syndromes. Aberrations Cromosomitas, when they are associated to triso me.
The agents teratogenicos, between these emphasize the medicines. Inheritance multifactorial, the majority of the cases fit in this category. There is a familiar trend, in which several members of a family are affected. It is known that to EVERY 11 MINUTES a child is born with this deformity in the world.
The incident of this different pathology de1,47 for every 1000 alive births for fissures labiopalatinas to 0,34 of isolated palate clefts. The Japanese have major incident of 2.1 for every 1000 alive births, whereas in the black race one finds fewer incident of 0,4 for 1000 alive births. For the location and possibility of important aesthetic and functional sequels, these deformities are a motive of extreme anxiety for the parents, from the moment of the birth. The treatment demands patience and time, so much of the parents as well as of the multidisciplinary equipment that they attend to the patient from the birth up to the adult age.
For the suitable treatment of the patient with this deformity there has to be attention with ortodoncista, therapists of language, psychologist, plastic surgeon, maxilofacial ENT specialist, protesista, pediatrician, odontopediatra, paediatric anesthetist.
The chronology of the surgeries depends on the skill and skills of the surgeon and on the nutritional condition of the patient. One recommends to produce the lip figured in the first 6 months of life, the palate fisurado in the first 18 months of life, surgery of graft of bone in the maxillary one 8 years after life. Reconstructions of nose after 15 years. Surgeries on the maxillary one and jaw, after having completed the bony development of the face.